find: a cool command for sysadmins

Tux

One of my all-time favourite Linux commands as a sysadmin is ‘find‘. It’s flexible, powerful and it’s got me out of trouble many times.

find works by traversing a directory tree for files and folders that meet a specified search criterion.

For example, if you want to find a JPEG file called Cats.JPG under /home/suuze_linux:

$ find /home/suuze_linux -name Cats.JPG

What if you know the JPEG file’s name has the word ‘Cats’ in it, but you aren’t sure exactly what the rest of the name is? You can use wildcards:

$ find /home/suuze_linux -name "*Cats*.JPG"

The searches above are case-sensitive. If you’re not sure if the filename has ‘Cats’, ‘cAts’, ‘cats’, or any other combination of the letters, you could try:

$ find /home/suuze_linux -iname "cats.jpg"

find can search using many other kinds of criteria. To search for items that have changed in the last day:

$ find /home/suuze_linux -mtime -1

The ‘-‘ indicates we’re looking for all files with an inode modification time less than 1 day. If the ‘-‘ is left off, find will return matches whose inodes were modified exactly 1 day ago.

How about files that were created in the last week? No problem:

$ find /home/suuze_linux -ctime -7

In order to fully understand how find works, bear a couple of things in mind: One of the fundamental (and over-simplified) precepts of Linux and UNIX-like operating systems is that everything is a file. This is not strictly true. But the precept works for our purposes here. find uses inode data to look for matches. Everything in a Linux filesystem is associated with an inode (Index Node). Therefore (unless otherwise specified), find will return both files and folders that match.

Here’s another example. Perhaps your root filesystem is close to capacity. You want to find all files that are greater than 1 GiB in size:

$ sudo find / -size +1G

Again, if the ‘+’ was left off, find will return all files that are exactly 1GiB in size.

As an aside, GiB stands for gibibytes (i.e, 1024 * 1024 * 1024 bytes). This is different to GB which stands for gigabytes (i.e, 1000 * 1000 * 1000 bytes). Why do we care? Among other things, apparently a whole lot of lawsuits have been brought against hardware manufacturers over the difference between 10243 and 10003! You can read all about this at MASV’s article, GB vs GiB: What’s the Difference Between Gigabytes and Gibibytes?

The power of find is in its flexibility. Multiple search criteria can be combined. Let’s say your filesystem is filling up, and you know you have old ISO files lying around that can be got rid of. You could search for them with something like this:

$ sudo find / -iname "*.iso" -type f -mtime +365 -size +4G

Breaking it down:

  • iname specifies a case-insensitive search.
  • *‘ is a wildcard which will match a string of length 0 or more.
  • -type specifies the file type – in this case, ‘f’ will constrain the search to regular files only.
  • mtime specifies all inodes that were modified over 1 year ago.
  • size specifies 4 gibibytes or larger.

The above command would give you a list of files and folders that match the search criteria – if any exist. The resulting list will be fully qualified. I.e, find will give you the complete path to each matching file or folder. You can then navigate to that file or folder, query it using ls, remove it using rm, etc.

However, find can make our lives even easier with the ‘-exec’ flag. Like so:

$ sudo find / -iname "*.iso" -type f -mtime +365 -size +4G -exec ls -l {} \;

Instead of returning a list of matching files, find will run the command that follows ‘-exec’ on each matching file. In this case, it will do a long listing of each. Neat, huh?

Note that the command above can be shortened as follows:

$ sudo find / -iname "*.iso" -type f -mtime +365 -size +4G -ls

The ‘-ls’ flag effectively is a ‘-exec ls -lids {} \;’ – it does a long listing on matching files and directories, displaying inode numbers and sizes in blocks.

A sequence of find commands such as the following is a handy addition to a Linux sysadmin’s toolbox.

$ sudo find / -iname "*.iso" -mtime +365 -size +4G -exec ls -ld {} \;

followed by:

$ sudo find / -iname "*.iso" -mtime +365 -size +4G -exec rm {} \;

or:

$ sudo find / -iname "*.iso" -mtime +365 -size +4G -delete

However, use this with caution!rm‘ and the ‘-delete’ option both remove files permanently – there is no recycle bin option here. Once rm has removed a file on a Linux filesystem, the only way to get it back is to restore from a backup (if one exists!).

A cool thing about Linux is how the output of one command can be used in another. For instance…

  • if you want to change directory into a folder called ‘scripts’,
  • you know scripts is under your home directory somewhere but you can’t recall exactly where, and
  • you know there is only one ‘scripts’ folder sitting under your home directory tree somewhere,

… you could run something like this from your home directory:

$ cd "`find /home/suuze_linux -name scripts`"

A ‘pwd‘ should now show that your current working directory is the directory scripts and the path to it.

I used double quotes in the example above because I know the path to my scripts folder is likely to have folders with spaces in their names. If you knew for sure there are no folder names with spaces in the directory tree, you could leave out the double quotes. But leave the back ticks in – they are what causes the Linux shell to evaluate the find statement first, before passing the result to cd.

This post just scratches the surface of what find can do! To find out more:

$ man find

or

$ find --help

What do you think? What is your favourite find option? Feel free to comment below – and happy finding!

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